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Computational Fluid Dynamics <img alt="" src="" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /> Fluid DynamicsComputational Fluid Dynamics <p><strong>​Mission:</strong></p><p style="text-align:justify;"></p><p></p><p style="text-align:justify;"></p><p></p><p style="text-align:justify;">Main objective of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the numerical simulation (by solving appropriate equations with computers) of interactions among fluids and bodies in relative motion and their effect on physical parameters. It is particularly important in aerospace field the computation of forces and aerodynamic flows generated during the motion of aircrafts in the atmosphere. The results are required for research, design and optimisation in many application fields.</p><p>Mission of CFDY laboratory is:</p><ul><li><p>To define, develop and verify advanced computational methods for applications both in research and in industrial fluid dynamics, covering subsonic, transonic and supersonic flow regimes.</p></li><li><p>To develop knowledge in computational methodologies involved in aerodynamic design and analysis of aerospatial configurations (fixed and rotary wings aircrafts, launchers, etc.) and not-aeronautical configurations (automotive, sails, eolic turbines, etc.) including propulsion effects, aeroelastic effects and flow control systems.</p></li><li><p>To support wind tunnel experimental tests definition and analysis (i.e. to optimise the test matrix, to verify loads, to investigate expected flow regimes, etc.)</p></li><li><p>To develop appropriate procedures required for extrapolation-to-flight of wind tunnel experimental data.</p></li><li><p>To deliver numerical data required for aeroacoustic analysis</p></li></ul><p> </p><p></p><p></p><p><strong>Goals:</strong></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p>Even if computational fluid dynamics seems today a mature technology, some critical areas remain, where investment is required. It should be remarked that we have been lacking substantial progresses in physical models for turbulence and transition since last four or five decades. Concerning CFD techniques, the following issues have to be addressed.</p><ul><li><p>Grid generation is still a bottleneck in the process of CFD analysis, and it is necessary to progress toward automation in this field.</p></li><li><p>The largest part of the currently available CFD methods is not fully adequate for simulation of unsteady and vortex dominated flows, such as applications in the field of rotary wing, high lift systems and in general for largely separated flows.</p></li><li><p>Unsteady flow simulations are extremely expensive and questions about their accuracy are still open.</p></li><li><p>High performance computers (HPC) are progressing quickly and CFD codes need to be continuously adapted to the new architectures in order to guarantee the maximum efficiency.</p></li><li><p>Large majority of the available CFD codes are capable to deal with complex geometries, but they are limited to second order schemes. Higher order schemes do improve computational efficiency in case of simple geometries and their limitations in case of complex configurations should be overcome.</p></li></ul><p> </p><p>New frontiers are:</p><ul><li><p>Multidisciplinary simulations, like fluid-structure interaction, dynamics, etc.</p></li><li>Multidisciplinary optimisation (MDO), with large amount of accurate CFD and multi-disciplinary simulations performed in parallel way.<br></li></ul>Both of them require:<br><ul><li><p>Automatic mesh generation</p></li><li><p>Better reliability and flexibility of CFD analysis methods</p></li><li><p>Knowledge of uncertainties levels</p><br> </li></ul><p></p><p><strong>Research topics:</strong></p><p></p><p></p><p>The application areas include all products in the aeronautic and aerospace fields</p><h4>ROTARY WING AIRCRAFTS </h4><ol><ul><li><p>Helicopter aerodynamics</p></li><li><p>Blade-fluid interaction, deformation and flapping</p></li><li><p>Conversion phase of tilt-rotors</p></li><li><p>Rotary wing aircraft-wake interaction</p></li></ul></ol><p></p><p><img src="http://webtest.ciraext.local/PublishingImages/CFDY-FIG4.png?RenditionID=3" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></p><h4>AERODYNAMIC DRAG REDUCTION</h4><blockquote style="margin:0px 0px 0px 40px;border:none;padding:0px;"><p>Flow control</p></blockquote><ol><ul><li><p>Reduction of flow separation areas<br></p></li><li><p>Viscous friction reduction<br></p></li><li><p>Unsteady devices (Gurney flap, synthetic and pulsed jets, etc...)<br></p></li></ul></ol><p><br></p><p></p><h4>AIRCRAFT DESIGN</h4><ol><ul><li><p>Innovative configurations </p></li><li><p>High lift performances improvement</p></li><li><p>Aircraft stability changes due to large elastic deformations </p></li><li><p>Flapping wing aerodynamics</p></li><li><p>Transonic flutter simulation</p></li><li><p>Aircraft maneuvers</p></li></ul></ol><p><img src="http://webtest.ciraext.local/PublishingImages/CFDY-FIG5.png?RenditionID=3" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></p><p><img src="http://webtest.ciraext.local/PublishingImages/CFDY-FIG8.png?RenditionID=3" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></p><p></p><h4>AIRCRAFT-ENGINE INTEGRATION</h4><ul><li><p>Engine nacelle integration, propeller effect, air intake </p></li><li><p>Engine induced thermal effects</p></li><li><p>Multi-stage compressors and turbine simulation</p></li><li><p>Counter rotating open rotors (CROR) </p></li></ul><p><strong><br></strong></p><p><img src="http://webtest.ciraext.local/PublishingImages/CFDY-FIG6.png" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></p><h4>LAUNCHERS</h4><p></p><p></p><ul><li><p>Launch phase<br></p></li><li><p>Lower stage release<br></p></li></ul><div><img class="modal-content" src="http://webtest.ciraext.local/PublishingImages/CFDY-FIG7.png" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /><br></div><div><br></div><h4>AERODYNAMIC DESIGN PROCEDURES <br></h4><p></p>