Sign In





Fluid Mechanics<img alt="" src="" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /> MechanicsFluid Mechanics<p>​The fluid Mechanics unit area of interest ranges from basic research to industrial applications. The objectives and the mission of the unit have been defined by using as reference the "Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda". The SRIA identify the technological targets for aeronautics for 2050. In details the units challenges are:<br></p><ol><li><p><strong>Industrial Leadership:</strong></p></li><ul><li><p>Improvements of Italian Aeronautical industrial competitiveness;<br></p></li><li><p>Improvement of design, manufacturing and certification process (about 50% reduction o certification costs);<br></p></li></ul><li><p><strong>Environment:</strong></p></li><ul><li><p>Reduction of emissions CO<sub>2</sub> per passenger and per kilometer of 75% and reduction of  NO<sub>x</sub> emissions by 90%;</p></li><li><p>Reduction of acustic impact by 65%;</p></li><li><p>Increase use of alternative fuel (including electrical propulsion);</p></li></ul><li><p><strong>Safety:</strong></p></li><ul><li><p>Reduction of number of accidents to less than one every ten millions of commercial flight with a particular attention versus flight in adverse meteorological conditions;</p></li></ul></ol><p>The Fluid Mechanics units is strongly involved in providing cooperation and support to other CIRA department and in the development of space technologies and to the study of unmanned vehicles. Finally. The unit is also involved in the deployment of aeronautical technologies versus non-aeronautical sectors such as automotive and energetic.</p><p> </p><p>The main objectives of the unit are:</p><ul><li><p>Development and improvements of aerodynamics design capabilities of complex shape by using CFD;</p></li><li><p>Development and improvement of multidisciplinary design capabilities for both fixed wing and rotating wing aircraft;</p></li><li><p>Development and improvement of numerical model for turbulence simulation and for the modelling of the laminar-turbulent transition;</p></li></ul><div style="text-align:center;"><img src="" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:600px;height:338px;" /><br></div><p> </p><p style="text-align:center;"> Flow control and laminar-turblent transition<br></p><ul><li><p>Development and improvements of capabilities for the numerical simulation of in-flight ice accretion and for the ice protection system simulation;<br></p></li><li><p>Use of all aforementioned capabilities for the design and study of fixed wing, rotating wing and space vehicles (including launchers):<br></p></li><li><p>Development of aerodynamics data-base;<br></p></li><li><p>Detailed design and analysis of aircraft components <br></p></li></ul><p> </p><p style="text-align:center;"><img src="" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:600px;height:338px;" /><br></p><p style="text-align:center;">Engine-airframe integration<br></p><p> </p><blockquote style="margin:0px 0px 0px 40px;padding:0px;border:currentcolor;"></blockquote><p style="text-align:justify;">Even if apparently CFD can nowadays be considered a mature technology there are several areas and problems not yet solved:</p><p>Most of CFD solver are not yet capable to accurate simulate transitional flows and flows dominated by vorticity:</p><ul><li><p>Helicopters;<br></p></li><li><p>High lift systems;</p></li><li><p style="display:inline;">Separate flow;</p> <br></li></ul><div>To solve these issues it is required to use high order models such as "Large Eddy Simulation" (LES), o "Direct Navier-Stokes Simulations" (DNS).<br><ul><li><p>Most of the physical models, such as those used to simulate transition from laminar to turbulent flows have been developed in the years 70 or 80 and from them have not been obtained relevant improvements;</p></li><li><p>Most of numerical software are able to simulate complex geometries, but are limited to second order accuracy and cannot accurately solve the turbulence;</p></li><li><p>Unsteady flow simulation are too expensive form the computational point of view and have accuracy limitation;</p></li><li><p>Computing capabilities are progressing quickly but in an unpredictable way and therefore it is necessary to adapt CFD solvers to new computational technologies;</p></li><li><p>Use of CFD has still limitation due to weakness in the accurate simulation of turbulent flow with large area of separated flows;</p></li><li><p>Grid generation is the bottleneck of CFD and it is necessary to automate as much as possible this phase.</p></li></ul><div><p><br>The new borders of CFD are:</p><ul><li><p>Multidisciplinary simulations;<br></p></li><li><p>Optimization (with a large number of accurate simulations);<br></p></li></ul><p>Both require:</p><ul><li><p>Automatic grid generation;<br></p></li><li><p>Robustness increase;<br></p></li><li><p>Knowledge of uncertainties level;<br></p></li><li><p>Development of "surrogate" and "Low-fidelity" methods that could efficiently be used within the optimization process;<br></p></li></ul><p>From safety and certification requirements has come out the necessity to use CFD for the simulation of ice accretion related problems:</p><ul><li><p>SLD ice accretion simulation;<br></p></li><li><p>Supercooled Large Droplets and ice crystal simulation;<br></p></li><li><p>Specific helicopter icing problems such as erosion and ice shedding;<br></p></li><li><p>Development of models for ice protection simulation and their inclusion in design procedures.<br></p></li></ul><p>The area of excellence of the units are:</p><ul><li><p>Numerical optimization;</p></li><li><p>Uncertainties quantification;</p></li><li><p>Reliable design procedures;</p></li><li><p>Parametric geometries treatments;</p></li><li><p>Parametric grid generation;</p></li><li><p>Development of advanced optimization tools;</p></li><li><p>Development of surrogate method;</p></li><li><p>Turbulence models:</p></li><ul><li><p>Actuators for flow control:</p></li><li><p>Hybrid RANS-LES methods;</p></li><li><p>LES external and reagents flows;</p></li></ul><li><p>Transition models:</p></li><ul><li><p>Linear stability;</p></li><li><p>Laminar turbulent transition prediction within RANS methods;</p></li></ul><li><p>Method for aerodynamics simulation of rotating wing:</p></li><ul><li><p>Wake obstacle interaction simulation;</p></li><li><p>Acceleration techniques based on 'Fast Multipole Methods';</p></li></ul><li><p>Ice accretion and ice protection systems simulation.</p></li></ul><br></div></div>

 Media Gallery



MEFL Figura 2 Figura 2Image
Flow control and laminar-turblent transition control and laminar-turblent transitionImage
Engine-airframe integration integrationImage
MEFL Figura 5 Figura 5Image
MEFL Figura 6 Figura 6Image




ARF Chairman's Award 2018<img alt="" src="" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /> Chairman's Award 2018ARF Chairman's Award 2018CIRA has received the 43rd European Rotorcraft Forum Chairman's Award for the work "Forces on Obstacles in Rotor Wake - A GARTEUR Action Group", acknowledged as the best paper with a focus on international cooperation2018-11-12T23:00:00Z
To GARTEUR AG22, co-ordinated by CIRA, the 43rd ERF 2017 Chairman Award<img alt="" src="" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />°-erf-2017/To GARTEUR AG22, co-ordinated by CIRA, the 43rd ERF 2017 Chairman AwardTo GARTEUR AG22, co-ordinated by CIRA, the 43rd ERF 2017 Chairman AwardThe European Rotorcraft Forum International Committee, by recognizing the high level of the technical paper "Forces on Obstacles in Rotor Wake - A Garteur Action Group"has awarded CIRA researchers Antonio Visingardi and Fabrizio De Gregorio and the other European partners.2018-02-08T23:00:00Z